Balsam firs are small to medium sized conifers that are commonly used for Christmas trees. They have smooth, grayish bark that is marked by soft blisters filled with resin, flat, dark green needles, and 2-4 inch long purplish oblong cones. Balsm firs prefer cold, moist climates and are currently found throughout much of central and eastern Canada, as well as the northeastern and midwestern U.S. Balsam firs are a major food for moose during the winter but not for caribou or white-tail deer. It is also a less important food source for mice and voles than other conifers.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The Mammoths and Mastodont Project Team gratefully acknowledges their support.