Black spruce is one of seven species of spruce trees that are native to North America. It is a wide-ranging and abundant tree that prefers cool, moist climates. The black spruce can grow up to 25 m tall, although it tends to be more shrub-like near the tree-line. It has a tall, spire-like crown, short, drooping, overlapping branches, and waxy, bluish-green needles. These trees produce long, oval, purplish-brown seed cones that may remain on the trees indefinitely, and the seeds may be viable for up to 25 years. Fires help to open the cones and accelerate seed dispersal, making black spruce a post-fire pioneer in many areas.
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