Caribou, Rangifer tarandus

Caribou, or reindeer, are Holarctic deer that are currently found in the northern portions of North America, Europe and Asia. In North America, they are found in Alaska, Canada and along the Canada-U.S. border, including northern Idaho, northeastern Washington and southeastern British Columbia. During historic times, caribou could also be found in the northern U.S. from Minnesota to Maine, but they disappeared from these areas during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Caribou are well-adapted to the extreme cold of Arctic environments, and their presence in more southernly deposits from the late Pleistocene serves as a good indicator of colder climates during this time.

Male caribou in Alaska

Male caribou in Alaska. Credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Dean Biggins

Artiodactyla (Hoofed Mammals)
Cervidae (Deer)

Length: females: 1.4-1.9 m (4.6-6.2 ft), males: 1.6-2.1 m (5.2-6.9 ft.);

Weight: females: 63-94 kg (139-207 lb), males: 81-153 kg (179-337 lb)